Notes on Breathing & Critical review of Under the Skin

2020-03-03 00:00:00 +0100

Innate gas exchange, such as respiration, is symptomatic for living systems. Energy intake and waste emission, the complex and indistinguishable push and pull of life, is commonly misrepresented as split inspiratory and expiratory phases of ‘a’ metabolism. Each breath as a whole is unique and not quantifiable, therefore it has no market value and evades general monitoring, which is subject to numerical analysis.

Breathing is generally taken for granted and its sounds paid no attention to. The activity is scarcely audible if not amplified by natural causes, e.g. physical exertion /illness, or auxiliary equipment. Sound is generated by wave dynamics, moving turbulences, which travel through materiality like air to affect bodies and space. The audible, however, is only an illusion, electric energy that hits the ear drum and is translated by the brain into the perception of sound.

Unsound is subtle vibrations, which act beyond cognition and comprehension. The atmosphere is filled with breath and what is commonly dismissed as background noise is universal sound, made up of past and future existence.[1]

Special thanks to all new and existing patrons, who subscribed to my special offer on Patreon and genuinely show interest in my research and efforts, it means a lot to me. You can still purchase access to my virtual hard drive for only $10, which features a new review essay on Under the Skin by Jonathan Glazer. ThanX !

[1] AUDINT—Unsound:Undead (2019). Ed. Goodman, S. and Heys, T. and Ikoniadou, E.. Falmouth, UK: Urbanomic.

One-off Moving Image Festival and Interview

2020-02-18 00:00:00 +0100

I’m thrilled to announce that I’m participating in the ‘One-Off Moving Image Festival 2020’ with the theme ‘Browsing right and wrong’, amongst many well-known digital artists. My entry, the longtake ‘Divock runs’, is a psychogeographical run through a suburb in rural Bavaria. Enjoy!

A further take on subreality was a conversation with Dreampunk visionary Cliff Jones Jr., which whom I had a great time talking to.

Read the full interview here.

Patreon page out!

2020-02-03 00:00:00 +0100

You can now contribute towards my projects on Patreon:


Your donation is greatly appreciated and I’m thinking of adding special tiers for my supportors soon. Many thanks! X

Concluding The VteX Files and start of new project

2019-12-19 00:00:00 +0100

My workshop was mentioned in an article reviewing the SF conference I took part in London this year. Vector, the critical journal of the British Science Fiction Association, is quite a cool magazine, check it out. The VteX Files conclude with, and as an end always marks a new beginning, it’s time for a new project. The transition is fluent, and in that sense this will also be the concept. I will delve deeper into the realm of movement, sound and waves, which already surfaced in previous posts. Working title for the project is THE RUNNING MAN, which implies that I’m also going to write more fiction within the SF community. Here a little vid of my prepatory steps and some notes on movement:

In the past, and according to the original meaning of the term ‘theater’, the audience moved their bodies to a specific place in order to witness something out of the ordinary. This could be any staged performance, whether a public execution, a scientific experiment or imaginary play. With the establishment of institutions and the isolation of different fields of activity, it was now distinct groups of specialized experts who determined what and who is worthy to watch, and thus the theater moved from the public sphere into more enclosed space.

The renaissance of practicing a combination of art & science in the 1960s/70s and its endeavors to realign the spheres of nature and culture came to halt with neoliberalism. A fascist hell in stasis, constructed for the survival of a reckless few, in which the market dictates the value of life on an unprecedented global scale. Shortcomings can be calculated and levelled out in an instant, since any aspect of life is been translated into binary code.

Moving image is a sequence of moments frozen in time, each of them a mere representation of what is actually going on. And whether intentional or not, an image always conveys constructed and falsified meaning, as it excludes the constant dynamics and the many relations of life. Microanalysis, in fact, brings only a fragment of a whole into light, whilst keeping the truth in the shadow.

Today’s technology facilitates not only for the representation but the replacement of life. Why moving for enjoyment, if the theater is at any place, at any time, staging something easy to watch? If one likes it or not, everyone is, though often unconsciously , constantly exposed to images. The insidious dependency on passive consumption, which neither requires physical nor intellectual effort, affects body and psyche, such as the loss of function and a distorted self-image. To what extent, is a matter of urgent analysis.

How to rehabilitate from this mass trauma? The purpose of art is to stimulate the internal life force, and artistic creation involves mind, senses and the movement of the body in space. The outcome is a full expression of life, an important capacity to connect the inner with the outer. Reference points can be found when revisiting methods such as the Bartenieff Fundamentals. Prerequisite for setting the body back in motion is to create awareness of the situation through dialogue, as self-observation proves difficult especially when bound into the system and its rituals. After thorough assessment, one can relearn to move in space and time, preferably to the rhythm of life instead to the pace of profit. Time, previously wasted, is filled with meaningful activity, for the most part new ways of acquiring knowledge like experimenting with language or technology. As everyone learns and does things differently, open space is necessary for moving across disciplines and cultures and, above all, independently.

Finally I would like to wish to you and your families a very merry christmas, relaxing holidays and all the best for 2020! X

Electrical Telegraph and Crystal Radio test

2019-11-28 00:00:00 +0100

Witness my attempt to key the first message that was ever transmitted by electrical telegraphy.

After the telegraph was working, I started to build a crystal radio. Much inspiration comes from this site, and I want to recommend it as great source of ideas. So far my ensemble doesn’t work, which can have various reasons. For the output I’ve tried two buzzers with different operating modes. The self-drive piezo buzzer, which has a third wire for feedback and the regular one (shown in the image). For the next attempt I’m going to simplify the design and try a different output.

First experiments with 555 timer

2019-10-01 00:00:00 +0200

I’ve made two circuits, the first one turns a LED on /off, the second generates random sound. High /Low is set by the duration needed for charging and discharging the capacitor. This in turn is regulated by the resistors and their values with which I’ve experimented in my initial breadboard set-ups. In the end I’ve powered both with 9V as performance with a 6V battery (as shown in the first image) is very low.

click here > finished soldered sculpture

click here > two short clips of the finished soldered sound piece

Review of Productive Futures Conference

2019-09-18 00:00:00 +0200

I was invited to run the workshop Revive the Myth: Creating Speculative Fiction Collectively at the conference Productive Futures: The Political Economy of Science Fiction, which took place in Bloomsbury, London, UK, from 12th-14th September 2019. This gave me the opportunity to present my experimental RPG The VteX Files to a small audience and get some feedback. The team of THE LONDON SCIENCE FICTION RESEARCH COMMUNITY (LSFRC) did an impressive job, the conference catalogue and name tags, beautifully designed by Sinjin Li, already provided a foretaste of what to expect for the next few days at Birkbeck.

The Dispossessed by Ursula K. Le Guin with its vivid depiction of the disparate states on Anarres and Urras, based on ideologies of either anarcho-syndicalism or capitalism, was probably the most referred to SF novel throughout the event. The setting, eerily akin to the current political climate of a deeply divided society, is a reminder to carefully weigh and combine the economic and social objectives of both models, in order to come to terms and reinstate the fundamental policy of democracy. In retrospect it became clear to me that the parable also corresponds well with my contribution, an attempt to debunk utopianism as a dogmatic mindset of the establishment, which tries to impose its concept of an ‘ideal’ society on a group of individuals.

A keynote by Dr Caroline Edwards kicked off the conference, revisiting past expectations of the future that held promise of liberation, prosperity and unity of all people. In the 20th century technology has been considered as the universal remedy for any societal problem and this view has not changed, even though this utopia has turned out as a living hell of repression, scarcity and isolation.[1]
In a system, which defines humans merely by their economic purpose, also addressed in a later paper presentation by Virginia L. Conn [2], who cited Benjamin, “… identifying people rather with their duty than their being”, is no room for our species since AI and robots perform far more efficiently. In conclusion we are faced with the pressing question if, and above all how, the marxist proposition of the transformation of labor into play can succeed.
In the afternoon of day 1 some of us went to the Science Museum to an event organized by CHASE, which put focus on ecology and gender issues. Even though topics not primarily on my research agenda, I want to recommend the Gender Manifesto on the neatly designed website to others.

Llew Watkins talked about the prominence of the color blue, capital and spirituality within the art world in context with the episode Zima Blue of the Netflix series Love, Death & Robots.[3] From an economic viewpoint, it does not look good for those genuinely engaged with art. Watkins visualized the ongoing inequality in form of a cone, whereby the pointy end represented artists, who are privileged enough to sell their work as decor for the rich. Another slide with the quote - “art is inextricably linked to capital” - affirmed that art has mutated into a mash of spectacle and finance, but fully revealed its weight to me after I’ve watched Zima Blue for the first time. A beautiful short animation written by Alastair Reynolds with a spiritual message inspired by ancient religions and Nietzschean philosophy.

Mark Fisher’s Capitalist Realism: Is There no Alternative? is a pretty depressing read but offers a rational explanation why the the future is immutable and thus cancelled.[4] Indeed, we can not image a world without capitalism, but how can we probe beyond the horizon, if our minds are programmed to think with formal rigor?
Dan Barrow presented Fisher’s concept ‘Acid Communism’,[5] substance of an unfinished book project, which leaves room for stimulating discussion and speculative fiction. Would it be possible to build a whole new world collectively by evoking the spirit of past countercultures?

Felix Kawitzky’s paper [6] on world-building in tabletop roleplaying games (TTRPGs) provided a lot of ideas. They closed the presentation with the promise to share their research in future in form of a workshop. I would definitely appreciate that, as it is sometimes very difficult, especially for a non-native speaker, to follow a read out.

So what goes next on my SF reading list?
Francis from the LSFRC team hinted me to Dhalgren by Samuel R. Delany, which was later also quite often mentioned by others. The presentation by LYU Guangzhao[7] from the London Chinese Sci-fi Group has made me very curious to get The Dark Forest by Liu Cixin, second part of the trilogy The Three-Body Problem. Supposedly of being ‘too dark’, it is not as popular as its predecessor, but perhaps the reason is due to the confrontation of the reader with an unpleasant truth. Carolyn Lau, a scholar with versatile knowledge, presented Kathy Ackers book Empire of the Senseless: A Novel, which I’ve already ordered.

The highlight at the end of the conference was an author roundtable with distinguished writers Alliete de Bodard and Zen Cho, chaired by Jo Lindsay Walton. The title of the conference implied to explore SF through the economic lens, but where technocapitalism permeates every aspect of life it is difficult to define clear borders, therefore the gathering guaranteed a rich array of top quality research. I totally felt welcome, as even a sci-fi noob like me had no problems to blend in.

[1] referring to Snirneck and Williams
[2] Blood Money: Biological Exchange and the Pursuit of Full Socialism
[3] Art world economics and spiritual transcendence in Zima Blue
[4] on a personal note, it introduced me to Ursula Le Guin
[5] ‘Acid Communism’, or the Narrative Economy of Consciousness
[6] Gaming the System: World-building, Science Fiction Roleplay Gaming, and the Enactment of Socio-Economic Futures
[7] Dark Forest: A SF Metaphor of the Neoliberal Spirit in the Post-1990 China

Structure, Military and the Virus (pt. 1)

2019-01-20 00:00:00 +0100

i. structure Satellites in the sky, they form
the outer peripheral points of the central nervous system
accurately positioned Artificial moons elevated from territory
observe earthly life indifferently, receiving and transmitting signals within
A structure built by those infected by the alien pathogen (Greek: πάθος pathos "suffering,
passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of")

Entangled in the inextricable void
tied up with constructing
constant parallels of progress and decay
The global positioning system determines the spacetime coordinates of
past and future.

While Meaning sounds in nothing
simultaneously everywhere and nowhere,
mass hallucination is
the compression of time to mine virtual space.
Meanwhile the plasmic inversion of space and time,
where sound travels faster than light
buried truth in a- geological inner-time.

William S. Burroughs described language as a virus from outer space, quasi a para - site, which forms a symbiotic relationship with the human host. However, both man and speech feed on each other, speech becomes man and man becomes speech. Burroughs applied cut-up and fold-in techniques to language for various reasons. He pursued a physical connection with words and involved the body as whole in order to rid himself of the bogus mind-body dualism. Less subjective, more unconscious, a de-structuration of text can unfold new meanings, even indicate future events, as the renunciation of the regime of logic releases a more truthful language and not just a meager sequence of thoughts. The brain works in inexplicable, transcendental ways - the now is a rhythmic oscillation from past to future, not a point but a wave of time, which Lefebvre considered as revolutionary, a flash of power that bares “the total realization of possibility”. Later on Burroughs experimented with tape recordings, which opened up entirely new contingencies. In contrast to the written word, discourse, music and ambient noise, well actually any sound could not just be arbitrarily juxtaposed but experienced simultaneously. Another important aspect of his work was to explore how such segment combinations affect the human nervous system. Rupture implies shock and surprise, feelings, that rather stimulate guts than ratio.[1]

Guerilla tactics of this kind hold sway in today’s politics, not arguing this is a complete novelty, as it always has been more economical to address and manipulate the emotions of the population instead of appealing to their intellect. What is new though is the inevitability and the technical refinement of the overlay. Data over data, layered in most rampant and synthetic combinations, in an out of control network that solely obeys its own laws and therefore serves the profiteers because regulation would render multinational corporations and the war machinery inoperable. When looking at the two prevalent camps of the political spectrum, on the one hand the right, who uses simplistic speech, on the other, the left, utilizing a complex and regulatory language, we are confronted with a conundrum or as Paul Valéry put it "Everything simple is false. Everything which is complex is unusable." But not unusable enough for “woke capital”, which forms the new “parapolitical suprastructure”, since PC or ‘hygenic speech’ has become a means to an end for corporations by simply promoting LGTB, non-whites or women in order to become unassailable by “branding themselves as guardians of free speech”.[2]

ii. Military The Information Channel on moon VteX streams reality beams of documentaries and interviews 24/7, today with an episode of the popular podcast RE: woke. The transformer is represented by Clark Carson, founder, chair of the think tank EquityNow, independent podcaster and Lt gen John Dyson from Huntsville, TX. A live recording as usual from CCs openoffice in the capital.

CC: John, the civilian population has been always held captive of their confined imagination and meat suit and robbed their most fundamental rights by the Cathedral. One might ask after your recent disastrous defeat, who is the enemy now and is there a new strategy?

Lt gen: Difficult to say, is it one of us? (laughs) What I can say is that the adversary is extremely networked, the straightforward GCC is no more and as we’ve seen gen 8 warfare became completely obsolete. New tech requires novel tactics, so presently our sole focus lies in improving the solar system model for our hard working communities.

CC: The federation has been branded as a success by the mainstream media but is actually leading to collapse. Withdrawal of troops in the outer colonies already took place, will there be finally a period of peace and happiness?

Lt gen: I don’t give any political statements, but the military’s R&D team has not been affected by the shutdown. We’ve been testing in extreme dense crystalline environments under 0k conditions, everythings been carried out in an orderly manner, and we expect signals of unparalleled clarity and speed, with free access for those in need. Our people can set faith and courage in us.

CC: Thanks John, our listeners will appreciate this.

My research on electromagnetic pulse (EMP) caused by high-altitude nuclear explosions and its damaging effects on electrical and electronic systems, similar to those of natural events as solar winds or lightning, proved difficult due to the complexity and opaqueness of the subject, practically confirming the point I’m going to make.
The specter of EMP doing its rounds in prepper and right-wing circles, serving the latter to promote politics of distraction and fear by indicating a nuclear strike from North Korea, Iran or even non-state actors and to make plans for a pretty white type of civil defense in case of a future societal breakdown. So can nuclear pulse be dismissed as a conspiracy or scaremongering?
Post-apocalyptic fiction[3], to which even quite a lot of governmental agencies referring to, suggests that a transient electromagnetic wave would kill roughly 90% of the US population, dying of starvation, disease and unrest within a year. This might sound a bit far-fetched at first but literally all the critical civil infrastructure of food, water, sanitation, healthcare, telecommunications and transportation is conditioned by the power grid. It adds that today’s population, especially the urbanite, has generally due to economic reasons rather specialized skills and lacks the general knowledge on how to survive in case of an emergency scenario.
Former republican congressman Trent Franks is quoted in an article of the online magazine Politico:
"The real problem is that we have essentially become victims of our own capability, of our own sophistication, where we’ve engineered our electric grid to the point of great vulnerability … [Electromagnetic pulse] has the potential to be the ultimate cybersecurity threat because it can take our source of power completely away from us."
I totally agree with Franks concerning the vulnerability of a hypercomplex power grid, which is probably very difficult to fix especially if a larger region is affected. But to get back to my earlier question, in light of the propaganda surrounding EMP and a current more realistic threat of a cyberattack, it might be better concentrating on the fact that we’ve lost track and work on a simpler infrastructure.

In the late 1950s - early 60s the United States conducted nuclear testing in high-altitude, roughly constituting a mere 1% of their overall estimated 1000 tests. The official aim of the US Department of Defense (DoD) was to establish an intercontinental ballistic missile-defense but on closer inspection it reveals that the whole project is of shared scientific interest between military, academia and the weapons industry. However, the identification of who is involved in what and to which extent is an impossible task because of an entangled bureaucratic network of a manifold commissions, laboratories and advocacy groups, especially when vital information is either forged or classified. In the cold war the two superpowers wanted to show off their scientific and military potency, a mad competition of who’s got the biggest at the expense of environment and its inhabitants. The weapon race led to hasty decisions and subsequent errors, for instance five of six high-altitude events of Operation Hardtack I had been carried out within a period of one month, most probably due to an imminent test moratorium in 1958.[4] Upon termination of the agreement the US commenced with Operation Fishbowl, and after two failed attempts, Starfish Prime was launched successfully from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean in July 1962. The hydrogen bomb detonated at 400km altitude with a massive yield of 1.4Mt, followed by an EMP, which was allegedly far more powerful than expected and perceptible thousands of km away. Besides power outages, auroras could be observed both from the Hawaiian Islands, and despite earth curvature, from the Samoan Islands region (APRX 4-5000km away) as charged particles spiraled across the earth’s magnetic field, generating the geophysical phenomenon.

ii. the virus From the perspective of the virus, it would not consider itself as pathogenic, as language succeeded in entering human tissue, the larynx and connected to the cellular level. We don’t even understand it as an infectious agent at all, we’ve been used to it from days of yore and accepted it as a gift of god. Back then it didn’t even matter, the virus just transmitted its genetic information and from host to host, and despite its rapid spread, random mutation was a warrant for healthy development. But what made it that virulent?

Disease-causing agents thrive in homogeneous environments, however, a steep decrease of noise in relation to progressive science & technology was realized by the Law of Economics. The goal of getting a sound picture reversed and what remained were discrete oscillations, newly composed by calculus.
Another threat level is nuclear fission. Ancient Greek philosophers Leucippus and his pupil Democritus ( 460 – 370 BC) already viewed the atom as indivisible matter and when the mean tropical year was still observed from earth, mankind accomplished a rather actual split of the mean solar day at a time scale of 1/86 400.

According to our overlords, a nuclear warhead needs to be tested in a myriad of conditions and their combinations. Factors include altitude, weapon yield (i.e. energy released on detonation), construction details (i.e. design of bomb) and atmospheric conditions (e.g. air pressure, strength of the earth's magnetic field, ..). However, the application of such a test strategy only proves that measurements vary, in disregard of the bomb’s actual purpose. In modern science, which had its beginnings in the 17th century and as is known for its stringent set of rules, a theory can be partitioned, whether it or its part are tested or untested, proved or unproved. In any case, sets of data can be combined and if uncertainties emerge just further testing will take place. Additionally an increasing amount of tools and methods, like measurement systems (e.g. optical, incl laser) and the computation of data (e.g. AI, quantum computing), are inflating theory and testing, each of which an extrinsic and independent element or factor that bears no relation to the actual test subject. In contrast, ancient philosophy applied existing general laws as a means, an armillary sphere for example serves as a “connector between theory and data”[5], whereas modern atomism seeks an end by adding auxiliary assumptions to infer laws. What they do have in common is that both take parts of the universe and draw general conclusions from it. Both claim the existence of unobservable things, a transcendental area beyond the possibility where evidence can be identified.[6]

A theory does not imply that it can or should be tested. High-altitude tests were carried out just at the beginning of space exploration and Starfish Prime sprayed its fission debris in hundreds of km, which partly lingered there for months or years and formed artificial radiation belts. Charged particles unfold a different dynamics in outer space and a prediction of fallout with respect to time, location and degree of contamination is rather unlikely. ‘Cold' testing, on the other hand, exercised in controlled conditions of the laboratory can only simulate nature and therefore falsify results. Thought experiments question rather than provide answers and evaluate possible change by probing its consequences. Evidence is an illusion and science’s obsession with it leads to meaningless infinity, a continuous cycle of theory, test and evidence, which renders actual change impossible. Ancient atomism looked at the structure of matter and Leucippus and his pupil Democritus concluded in the 5th century BC that the universe is constituted of nothing else than numerous invisible, indivisible and unchanging miniature stones.[7] Completely filled with matter (plenum), they move in the void and on collision either repel or entangle to form our experience of reality. A rearrangement of atoms implies possibilities of change, previously ruled out by Parmenides, who hypothesized the homogeneity and oneness of the universe and denied the existence of non-being in his work On Nature. For Democritus unintelligible, as already time indicates change and the legitimacy of non-being, as a flux from A to B involves the coming of B (a past non-being) and the ceasing of A (a future non-being). The same applies to an archaic virus that infested and reorganized the four-limbed animal’s genome with snippets of code.

Max Stirner responded to the question of what antiquity was actually looking for with “true enjoyment of life” (wahrer Lebensgenuß), and as an outcome – in contrast to modernity - a “real life” (das wahre Leben).[8] A positive approach to all life situations is also supported by Democritus, who praised serenity (Gemütsruhe). However, Stirner argued he wasn’t able to achieve it because his sole activity consisted of repelling (Abstoßen) the world and in order to do so the world would need to persist. An unfeasible task that doesn’t allow for full liberation but yet carried out by the subsequent post-aristotelian schools of stoicism and epicureanism, with solid imperturbability by the former, which Stirner calls an explicit Roman virtue, with fluid hedonism by the latter, and despite their differing modus operandi, he classed them essentially as alike. Unlike the skeptics who knew how to break with the world as they viewed it without definite value and truth and did not assign attributes like ‘bad’ or ‘good’ to its properties, an only too human habit.[9]

[1] see Odier
[2] see Parallaxoptics On Woke Capital (2018)
[3] In this case particularly One Second After (2009) by William R. Forstchen
[4] see
[5] see Chalmers, p. 6
[6] ibid p. 4
[7] ibid p. 2
[8] see Stirner p. 18
[9] ibid p. 19

Ahmed N. M. (2017). Failing States, Collapsing Systems: BioPhysical Triggers of Political Violence.
Campbell T. C. (2006). Wireless Writing in the Age of Marconi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Chalmers A. (2009). The Scientist's Atom and the Philosopher's Stone: How Science Succeeded and Philosophy Failed to Gain Knowledge of Atoms. Springer: New York
cyborg_nomade (2017). inner-time. Antinomia Imediata.
Deleuze G., Guattari F. (2004). A Thousand Plateaus – Capitalism and Schizophrenia. London: Continuum.
Kahn D. (1999). Noise, Water, Meat – A History of Sound in the Arts. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT press.
Koppel T. (2015). Lights Out: A Cyberattack, A Nation Unprepared, Surviving the Aftermath. New York: Crown Publishers.
Land C. (2005). Apomorphine Silence: Cutting-up Burroughs’ Theory of Language and Control.
Odier D. (1989). The Job: Interviews with William S. Burroughs. New York: Penguin Books.
spandrell (2019). Tucker Carlson’s war against Woke Capital and the future of the Right . Bloody shovel.
Stirner M. (2016). Der Einzige und sein Eigentum. Berlin: Verlag der Contumax GmbH & Co. KG.

Plotting with Matplotlib

2018-12-07 00:00:00 +0100

Short recap how to get into the ipython environment:
$ export PATH=~/miniconda3/bin:$PATH
$ conda info --envs «list environments
$ source activate (environment)

To import matplotlib into the python environment:
%matplotlib « <not sure if deprecated;
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt plt is the interface; pyplot makes mpl work like Matlab.
import numpy as np numpy array: In Python both strings and arrays are used, lists cannot process arithmetic functions and arrays are better for storing large amounts of data.'classic') in this case the ‘classic’ stylesheet. <not sure if deprecated; for script and command line to show the figure.

plot() documentation for a complete list of line styles and format strings.

Seaborn is an add-on for Matplotlib.

Ultrasonic Sensor & Processing

2018-11-17 00:00:00 +0100

The image below is from this tutorial, where Dejan Nedelkovski from explains the concept of an ultrasonic sensor and distance calculation.
For distance, travel time of sound waves and speed of sound has to be multiplied and divided by two, as the waves bounce from the object and travel back and forth. In our atmosphere at approx. 20°C the average speed of sound is 343 m per second, or 0.034 cm/us (us = microsecond [millionth of a second]), but this is subject to temperature.
Sound waves are longitudinal, mechanical and pressure waves and travel much faster in dense matter, their speed is determined by the composition of such. Elastic waves or seismic waves propagate through fluids and solids and are studied in seismology. In the 1920s, recordings of earthquakes showed that the outer core of the earth is liquid, as no secondary, or shear waves (S-waves), which only occur in solids, were detected on the sphere’s opposite half of the vibrations origin.
The field of underground exploration in geophysics includes the nondestructive method of Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) , detecting e.g. gas, buried water, soft soil (also oil?), ice, used for e.g. geotechnical engineering to determine the properties of the subsurface for ensuring a suitable base for construction projects; in military to e.g. detect mines or tunnels; in archeology e.g. to discover ancient burial sites or infrastructures.
GPR uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (UHV/VHF frequencies), «so contrary to ultrasound it penetrates the matter?, and is good for locating non-conductive utilites. «what about my sensor?
Anyway I’ve done the arduino & processing tutorial, but decided to continue with PureData for now, as it captures the signals from my sensor and outputs them in graphs {image manipulation} all the same.

To read data from the arduino, this line import processing.serial.*; needs to go at the top of the processing sketch. For serial communication, processing uses the same port as the arduino, so when the serial monitor is open, one will get an error message that the port is busy. To find out which port to use run this sketch:
import processing.serial.*;
Serial myPort;
void setup(){
String portName[] = Serial.list();

The SerialEvent() function reads the data from the arduino/serial port.
I get this error very often: Error, disabling SerialEvent() for dev/ttyACM0 null very often.

I’ve done this tutorial and understand now why the servo motor inputs its angle range, because the lines of the radar (green) are oriented and drawn based on that data. Or does it even draw the whole screen?

The function size() determines the size of display* window in pixels, when setup() function is used, it goes there in the first line. If fullScreen() is used, will it resize for mobile devices? *How will this work when resizing the browser?